• Document: A Review of Constitutive Models for Rubber-Like Materials
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American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3 (1): 232-239, 2010 ISSN 1941-7020 © 2010 Science Publications A Review of Constitutive Models for Rubber-Like Materials 1 Aidy Ali, 1M. Hosseini and 1,2B.B. Sahari 1 Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Problem statement: This study reviewed the needs of different constitutive models for rubber like material undergone large elastic deformation. The constitutive models are widely used in Finite Element Analysis (FEA) packages for rubber components. Most of the starting point for modeling of various kinds of elastomer is a strain energy function. In order to define the hyperelastic material behavior, stress-strain response is required to determine material parameters in the strain energy potential and also proper selection of rubber elastic material model is the first attention. Conclusion: This review provided a sound basis decision to engineers and manufactures to choose the right model from several constitutive models based on strain energy potential for incompressible and isotropic materials. Key words: Rubber, elastomer, hyperelastic, constitutive model INTRODUCTION cycles. The residual strain are not accounted for when the mechanical properties of rubber are presented in Rubber material usually has long chain molecules terms of a strain energy function (Dorfmann and recognized as polymers. The term elastomer is the Ogden, 2004; Cheng and Chen, 2003). The Mullins combination of elastic and polymer and is often used effect is closely related to the fatigue of rubber interchangeably with the rubber (Smith, 1993). In components using in engineering applications and it can recent years, rubber component as an engineering be considered as a necessary step for evaluation of the material has been used in many industries such as life of a rubber parts. There are many automotive and in a wide range of applications consist phenomenological theories to define the Mullins effect of engine mountings, tires, vibration isolators, medical in literature (Horgan et al., 2004). The viscous and devices and structural bearings. Rubber is an ideal elastic components change with temperature and strain material for many applications because it can withstand rate. These characteristics present complications to the very large strains over 500% with no permanent modeling of elastomers compared with other traditional deformation or fracture (Mars, 2002). Besides elastic engineering materials (Whibley et al., 2005). recovery, elastomers have special physical properties Geometrical and different physical nonlinearities have (flexibility, extensibility, resiliency and durability), to be taken into account in order to model rubber which are unmatched by other types of materials materials and nowadays, the finite element methods (Coran, 2006), however it still presents behavior in (FEM) is a powerful tool to analyze rubber common with other material (Abraham et al., 2005). components. Usually, these structures can not be This notable characteristics change with diverse defined analytically because of material nonlinearities variable including fatigue, light, heat, oxygen and and their complex geometry (Kaliske et al., 2001). ozone, during passing of time (Nagdi, 1993). Elastomers are basically super-condensed gases Elastomers present a very complicated mechanical because most primary monomers are gases and after behavior that exceed the linear elastic theory and polymerization have long chain molecules which will contain large deformations, plastic and viscoelastic be in an amorphous (rubber), glassy or crystalline properties and stress softening (Chagnon et al., 2004; phase. During cross linking or vulcanization, rubber Naser et al., 2005). Stress softening is known as the molecules are chemically fastened together at various Mullins effect and happened during initial loading points to form a network. They make stationary Corresponding Author: Aidy Ali, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

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