• Document: Physical Science 1 st Semester Final Exam Review Chapters 1-7, , What procedures should be followed when working with chemicals in the lab? do not touch, taste, or inhale chemicals; check
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Physical Science 1st Semester Final Exam Review Chapters 1-7, 8.3-8.4, 10.4 1. What procedures should be followed when working with chemicals in the lab? do not touch, taste, or inhale chemicals; check labels before using; do not remove chemicals from lab area; dispose of waste chemicals properly; wash hands with soap and water after working with chemicals 2. Describe the clothing a student practicing safe lab procedures would be wearing. lab apron; goggles over eyes; long hair tied back; shoes covering the entire foot; no loose sleeves, ties, jewelry etc. 3. What is a scientific theory? A well tested explanation for a set of observations. Theories explain why things happen – laws just explain what is happening 4. Give one circumstance under which a scientific theory could be modified. if new observations are made that contradict the theory, it must be modified 5. Research shows that eating large amounts of trans fats can lead to heart disease. Is it ethical for restaurants to serve high trans fat foods? Should consumers be informed about trans fat content in restaurant food? Keep the following in mind… ethics is what is considered “right” or “wrong”, but the question that always arises is who determines what is “right” or “wrong” In order to receive full credit on a question of this nature (one that deals with ethics)… 1. Answer the question!! A. In this case, you need to clearly state if you think it is ethical or not B. You also need to state whether consumers should be informed or not  That’s two points (out of four) right there…just for answering the question!!! 2. Give appropriate reasons as to why you answered the question the way that you did A. State WHY you think it is ethical or not ethical B. State WHY you think consumers should or should not be informed of the fat content of their food. Getting full credit for this question is not necessarily WHAT your answer is, but HOW your answer is stated! 6. A student wants to determine the effect of fertilizer on plant growth. The student has 3 plants. Each plant is given a different amount of the same kind of fertilizer and the growth of the plant is recorded (in centimeters). a. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? plant growth b. What is the independent variable in this experiment? amount of fertilizer 7. A graduated cylinder contains 25.0 mL of water. A marble in placed in the graduated cylinder and the water level rises to 26.2 mL. a. Given the mass of the marble is 4.8 g, determine the density of the marble. m 4.8 g  g d  4 v 12 . ml  mL b. If the marble were placed in a beaker of liquid mercury (density = 13.6 g/mL), would the marble sink or float? Float – its density is less than that of mercury. Substances with high densities migrate to the bottom of the container and substances with low densities move to the top 8. Define viscosity. a substance’s resistance to flow 9. Use an example to explain what happens to viscosity of a liquid as it is heated. At higher temperatures, viscosity usually decreases and a substance flows more easily – hot syrup is easier to pour than syrup that is cold 10. List three physical properties. physical properties are ones that can be measured without changing the substance  density, hardness, color, texture, malleability, melting point, boiling point, viscosity 11. What is the difference between a physical and chemical property? a physical property can be measured without changing the substance for a chemical property to be measured, a new substance must be created 12. Give an example of a heterogeneous mixture. mixed nuts, cereal, trail mix, tossed salad 13. Give an example of a homogeneous mixture. salt water, Kool-Aid, air 14. List three ways a mixture can be separated. filtration: separates materials based on the size of the particles distillation: process that separates materials based on boiling point sedimentation: process that separates materials based on differences in density 15. Classify the following as element, compound, or mixture: a. Oxygen ____Element_____________ b. Distilled water ___Compound_____________ c. Air ___Mixture_______________ d. Mg(NO3)2 ___Compound_______________ 16. During a phase change, a. what happens to temperature? temperature stays the same during phase changes b. what happens to heat? heat either increases or decreases (depending on whether process is exothermic or endothermic) 17. List three endothermic phase changes. melting, vaporization, sublimation 18. List three exothermic

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