• Document: Well Control Simulation A Tool for Engineering and Operations. Abstract. Introduction. The Simulator. Fred Ng, Wild Well
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Well Control Simulation – A Tool for Engineering and Operations Fred Ng, Wild Well Abstract Besides the standard driller’s method or wait and weight circulations, a transient simulator of this kind allows Well Control Simulation is becoming a very useful tool changes in operating conditions to be made at any point for managing risks and making critical well control during the well control process. So it can handle special decisions. The stakes are especially high in expensive procedures such as extended shut in of a kick, changing and increasingly popular projects such as ultra deep mud weight, pump rate, taking additional influx or other water or deep gas drilling. In well planning, it is used for interruptions during a kill. Other useful features made evaluating well design by modeling and developing possible by this kind of simulation include: circulating kick tolerance, based on casing shoe fracture gradient, gas handling capacity of surface equipment, or • Two Phase versus Single Bubble Modeling – A other specified limits. In operations, it is used to support single bubble model assumes that the kick influx well control decisions with updated kick tolerance when occurs as a single phase and remains so as it is changes occur in shoe fracture gradient, mud weight circulated up the wellbore. This tends to produce range, or size and depth of hole and casing. For special conservative results, which is usually preferable. well control operations beyond the conventional Driller’s However, for deep and or high pressure wells, the or Wait and Weight procedures, it can be used to results can sometimes be too conservative and not evaluate options such as interrupting the kill to change realistic, making it almost impossible to design a mud weight, pump rate and other conditions during a kill; well. A multiphase model provides results that are as well as extended shut in and volumetric kill. The more realistic, which is especially important for deep modeling is based on complete transient two phase flow, and high pressured wells.. and results are displayed in simple graphics that are • Choke Line Friction Pressure (CLFP) limit – For easy to understand and use in the field. drilling in deep water, say over 1,000’, CLFP in a long choke line through the water column can Introduction sometimes be high enough to effectively over ride the effect of the adjustable choke, as often happens Recent advances in computer technology have made when a gas kick is circulated close to the surface. In well control simulators available as tools for drilling order to maintain the proper pressures, it will then be engineering and operations. This paper describes the necessary to use an additional choke or kill line, application of one such simulator for well planning, slow down the kill pumping rate, stop the kill to bleed drilling operations as well as for evaluating special well down the pressure, or take all three of these actions. control operations. A transient simulation allows the detection of such occurrences. The simulation can be paused to execute one or more of the above responses, and The Simulator continuation of the simulation will then enable the effects of these actions to be evaluated. A fully time transient, two phase flow simulator provides a number of technology improvement over conventional • Separator and Flare Line Limits – The simulation steady state models. It can simulate and track the actual includes effects of pressure drop in a gas flaring full behavior of a kick, starting with influx of the kick, flow system, including the separator, flare line and mud check, shut in, the subsequent kill and venting of gas on leg. If the gas flaring rate exceeds system capacity, the surface. Instead of just seeing the results, as in the the simulation will indicate that the mud leg has case of a steady state model, the entire kick and kill been blown. Usual response options are slowing process can be visualized. the pump rate,

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