• Document: Deriving Priority Intelligence Requirements for Synthetic Command Entities
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Proc. of 8th Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, Orlando, FL, May 1999 Deriving Priority Intelligence Requirements for Synthetic Command Entities Jonathan Gratch Stacy Marsella Randall W. Hill, Jr. University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Marina del Rey, CA 90292 (310) 822-1510 gratch@isi.edu, marsella@isi.edu, hill@isi.edu LTC George Stone III JSIMS JPO 12249 Science Drive, Suite 260 Orlando, FL 32826 (407) 384-5554 george_stone@jsims.mil Keywords: Planning, C2, CCIR, PIR ABSTRACT: Simulation-based training is using increasingly complex synthetic forces. As more complex multi- echelon synthetic forces are employed in simulations, the need for a realistic model of their command and control be- havior becomes more urgent. In this paper we discuss one key component of such a model, the autonomous generation and use of priority intelligence requirements within multi-echelon plans. 1. Introduction tails, such that access to more information actually de- Command and control (C2) is an increasingly distributed grades planning performance. and dynamic enterprise. In a modern campaign, distributed sensing platforms provide up-to-date situation monitoring, A key characteristic of a good commander is an ability to allowing distributed command–and control elements to act proactively to determine what information is essential plan and respond effectively to rapidly evolving situa- for the successful development and execution of his plans. tions. These innovations provide dramatic benefits, but In the Army, this information is formalized in terms of they raise significant challenges both in training staff the Commander’s Critical Information Requirements members to realize the system’s potential, and in support- (CCIR). This is information “that must be brought to the ing this training with realistic models of the command commander’s attention because of its potential impact on and control process. the decisions that he must make in order to be successful during an operation,” [5]. By appropriately specifying Research on simulated command entities has focused pri- CCIR in a operation order, a commander can manage his marily on course of action development: What are the ac- information flow by focusing staff and subordinates on tions I can perform? How do I combine these actions to what is essential. achieve my mission? This effort has begun to yield im- pressive results, including synthetic commanders that, in Current models of C2 agents have not addressed the need some circumstances, fully automate the plan generation for automatically deriving critical information require- process (e.g., see [1,3,4]). ments. In this article we describe a proposed approach for automating this determination within the context of syn- Unfortunately, very little work has gone into understand- thetic Army C2 agents. We characterize the information ing how commanders obtain the critical information they requirements needed to support multi-echelon C2 plan- need to generate and monitor their plans. The advance- ning. This characterization is based on an analysis of a ment of sensor and communication technology provides a Corps-level exercise. We show how the Commander’s commander with unprecedented access to information, but Critical Information Requirements (CCIR) can be derived unless the right information reaches the right person at the automatically from an analysis of the information re- right time, this technology is wasted. Worse, commanders quirements that must be supported at higher echelons and can become inundated with irrelevant or unimportant de- Proc. of 8th Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, Orlando, FL, May 1999 an analysis of the details of how the current echelon in- tends to accomplished its mission. CCIR cann

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