• Document: Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet
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Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products. 3. Check to see whether there are the same NUMBERS and TYPES of atoms on both sides of the equation. i.e. The Law of Conservation of Matter. 4. Balance each chemical equation by placing whole numbers in front of the chemical formula. eg. The burning of steel wool(iron) in air. Step 1. Iron + Oxygen → Iron(II) oxide Step 2 & 3 Fe + O2 → FeO Step 4 2Fe + O2 → 2FeO Chemical formula help Acids Alkalis (Bases) - Acetic acid, CH3COOH, produces acetate salts, CH3COO Ammonia NH3 Hydrochloric acid, HCl, produces chloride salts, Cl- Potassium hydroxide, KOH Nitric acid, HNO3, produces nitrate salts, NO3- Sodium hydroxide, NaOH Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, produces sulfate salts, SO42- Cations (positive ions) Anions (negative ions) 3+ + 2+ aluminum Al , ammonium NH4 , barium Ba , calcium bromide Br-, carbonate CO32-, chloride Cl-, Ca2+, copper Cu2+, iron(II) Fe2+, iron(III) Fe3+, lead hydroxide OH-, nitrate NO3-, phosphate Pb2+, lithium Li+, magnesium Mg2+, mercury Hg2+, PO43- and sulfate SO42- sodium Na+, potassium K+, silver Ag+, zinc Zn2+ Diatomic molecules: Bromine Br2, chlorine Cl2, hydrogen H2, nitrogen N2 and oxygen O2 Valencies or Combining Powers of Elements Element 1 2 3 Metal Lithium Li, potassium K, Barium Ba, calcium Ca, magnesium Mg Aluminium Al sodium Na Copper Cu, iron(II) Fe, mercury Hg, Iron(III) Fe Silver Ag zinc Zn Lead Pb Non-metal Hydrogen H Oxygen O, sulfur S Nitrogen N Bromine Br, chlorine Cl May be used for educational purposes upon acknowledgement © www.chemicalformula.org 1 Write balanced equations for the following reactions 1. Magnesium ribbon burns in air to produce a white powder. A synthesis reaction. 2. Aluminum reacts with oxygen to produce a compound. 3. Hydrochloric acid and magnesium react to produce hydrogen gas and a magnesium salt 4. Sulfuric acid and zinc react to produce hydrogen gas and a zinc salt. 5. The action of sulfuric acid on calcium carbonate produces water, a calcium salt and a gas that turns limewater milky. 6. The heating of mercury(II) oxide, HgO, causes it to decompose into its elements. This is an example of a decomposition reaction. 7. The heating of copper carbonate produces carbon dioxide gas and copper oxide. 8. Copper oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce a green solution of copper(II) chloride and water. 9. A strip of copper metal when placed in a solution of silver nitrate produces metallic silver and a copper salt. 10. When a solution of silver nitrate comes into contact with a solution of sodium chloride a white precipitate of silver chloride and a solution of sodium nitrate are produced. 11. Potassium hydroxide can be used to neutralise a solution of hydrochloric acid. It produces a potassium salt and water. 12. Sodium hydroxide can be used to neutralise a solution of sulfuric acid. It produces a salt plus water. 13. Chlorine gas and potassium bromide react to produce potassium chloride and bromine. 14. Aluminum and bromine combine violently to produce a single compound. 15. Sodium reacts violently with water to produce a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. 16. Iron(III) oxide when heated in hydrogen produces iron and water. 17. Limewater (calcium hydroxide) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce water and a precipitate of calcium carbonate. 18. Limestone (calcium carbonate) when strongly heated decomposes into carbon dioxide and quicklime (calcium oxide). 19. Copper oxide and carbon when heated together produce the copper metal and carbon monoxide gas. 20. Hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfide produce hydrogen sulfide gas and a salt. May be used for educational purposes upon acknowledgement © www.chemicalformula.org 2 21. Copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide when mixed together produce a precipitate of copper hydroxide and a solution of sodium sulfate. 22. Copper hydroxide when heated produces black copper oxide and steam(H2O). 23. Copper oxide when heated in the presence of hydrogen gas produces copper metal and water. 24. Sodium hydroxide reacts with a solution of ammonium chloride to produce ammonia

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