• Document: Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Presented By: Dr. Hafiz Yasar Lateef Director, Telxperts Pty Ltd.
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Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Presented By: Dr. Hafiz Yasar Lateef Director, Telxperts Pty Ltd. Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN)   q Low-Power  WAN  Technologies are designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) networking environments. q With  decreased power requirements, longer range and lower cost than a mobile network, LPWANs are thought to enable a much wider range of  M2M and Internet of Things   (IoT) applications, which  have been  constrained by budgets and power issues. Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN)   LoRa & LoRaWAN   LoRa & LoRaWAN   q LoRa is the physical layer or the wireless modulation utilized to create the Long Range communication link. q Many wireless systems use Frequency Shifting Keying (FSK) Modulation as the physical layer because it is a very efficient modulation for achieving low power. q LoRa is based on Chirp Spread Spectrum Modulation, which maintains the same low power characteristics as FSK modulation but significantly increases the communication range. LoRa & LoRaWAN   LoRa & LoRaWAN   LoRa & LoRaWAN   LoRaN& LPWAN   LoRaWAN   etwork   Topology   •  The wireless portion of LPWAN networks uses a star topology. •  The traffic is backhauled to servers (cloud) through TCP/IP based networks (Internet). •  The base station is responsible for protocol translation from IoT protocols such as MQTT or CoAP to device application protocols. LPWAN   LoRaN& etwork   Topology   LoRaWAN   Indirect  device  connec8vity   •  In setups where devices cannot be directly reached through LPWAN, a local gateway bridges LPWAN connectivity to some short range radio (SRD) Technology (e.g. ZigBee, BLE). •  The gateway typically runs on mains power since it serves a larger number of devices and must convert between LPWAN and SRD radio technologies and protocols. •  Gateways may help to improve security. LoRa & LoRaWAN   How  it  Works?   •  In a LoRaWAN Network nodes are associated with multiple gateways. •  Each gateway will forward the received packet from the end-node to the cloud-based network server via some backhaul (either cellular, Ethernet, satellite, or Wi-Fi). •  If a node is mobile or moving there is no handover needed from gateway to gateway, which is a critical feature to enable asset tracking applications–a major target application vertical for IoT. LoRa & LoRaWAN   Ba>ery  Life8me   •  The nodes in a LoRaWAN network are Asynchronous and communicate when they have data ready to send whether event-driven or scheduled. •  This type of protocol is typically referred to as the Aloha Method. •  In a mesh network or with a Synchronous Network, such as cellular, the nodes frequently have to ‘Wake Up’ to synchronize with the network and check for messages. This synchronization consumes significant energy and is the number one driver of battery lifetime reduction. LoRa & LoRaWAN   Network  Capacity   •  High network capacity in a LoRaWAN™ network is achieved by utilizing adaptive data rate and by using a multichannel multi-modem transceiver in the gateway. •  The critical factors effecting capacity are –  Number of Concurrent Channels –  Data rate (time on air) –  Payload length –  How often nodes transmit. LoRa & LoRaWAN   Network  Capacity   q Adaptive data rate also optimizes the battery lifetime of a node. q A network can be deployed with a minimal amount of infrastructure, and as capacity is needed, more gateways can be added, shifting up the data rates, reducing the amount of overhearing to other gateways, and scaling the capacity by 6-8x. Device  Classes  –  Not  All  Nodes  Are   LoRa & LoRaWAN   Created  Equal   •  In order to optimize a variety of end application profiles, LoRaWAN™ utilizes different device classes. •  The device classes trade off network downlink communication latency versus battery lifetime. •  In a control or actuator-type application, the downlink communication latency is an important factor. Device  Classes  –  Not  All  Nodes  Are   LoRa & LoRaWAN   Created  Equal   LoRa Security   & LoRaWAN   •  LoRaWAN™ utilizes two layers of security: –  Network –  Application. •  The Network Security ensures authenticity of the node in the network while the application layer of security ensures the network operator does not have acce

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