• Document: Ultrasonic Transducers for NDT
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Ultrasonic Transducers for NDT IMMERSION TOFD PHASED ARRAY FLEXIBLE SPECIAL 2 02016 11 Context 3 Small footprint linear array transducers 28 SUMMARY IMASONIC Overview 4 Low profile linear array transducers 29 IMASONIC’s NDT offer 5 Matrix array transducers 30 Transducers Key components 8 Annular array transducers 33 Bandwidth or pulse length ? 9 TRL array transducers 34 Coupling method 10 Conformable array transducers 36 Smart Conformable Immersion single elements 12 Linear Arrays (1D) 37 Design notes 13 Low profile Contact Linear Arrays (1D) 37 Advantages of piezocomposites Smart Conformable for immersion transducers 14 Matrix Arrays (2D) 38 IM transducers 14 Low frequency Conformable Matrix Arrays (2D) 38 Enhanced focusing - Fermat concept 15 NEW: Transducers with conformable wedge 39 TOFD Transducers 16 Curved Linear Array Transducers 40 Standard TOFD series 17 Info: single encircling array Extra-flat TOFD for CRD inspection 18 or multiple sector arrays? 41 TOFD transducers for tube inspection 19 Daisy Array Transducers 42 Custom TOFD transducers 19 Circular array transducers 43 Phased array coupling solutions 44 Phased Array transducers 20 Info: Plexiglas or Rexolite? 45 New acoustic solutions for phased array probes 22 Phased array connection solutions 46 Linear array transducers for steering 24 Phased array principle 48 Linear array transducers for scanning 26 Phased array design notes 50 Info: pre-focused arrays 27 And more 52 3 Context Non Destructive Testing (NDT) based on ultrasound is the use of ultrasonic waves to detect, locate and characterize defects in materials, components and assemblies. This technique has evolved enormously over fifty years and changes have been particularly rapid over the last twenty years. Other NDT techniques (X Rays, Eddy Currents, Visual Inspection, Thermography, etc) complement ultrasonic techniques. Whichever technique is used, the purpose is to ensure that the materials, components or structures are of a satisfactory quality. The evolution of the performance requirements of NDT has been determined by developments in quality requirements. The history [1] of the development of these techniques has thus been marked by the evolution in the objectives of inspections: the "zero defect" objective of the 1960s was replaced in the 1970s by the objective of detection of "critical defects", followed in the 1970s-1980s by the objective of improving the detectability of defects. It should be noted that the term Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) has developed for this evolution towards the characterization of defects. The 1980s-1990s were then marked by the objective of continuous and improved NDT of the systems and structures that are subject to ageing. In the 1990s-2000s appeared the needs to inspect very large areas, to monitor continuously the health of certain structures through Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), and, at the same time, to reduce the cost of inspections and other evaluations. The quality requirements behind NDT techniques is currently centred on establishing the key parameters of dimension, shape, orientation and detectability of defects. In the light of these objectives, the development of the performance of NDT systems plays an essential role in connection with the development of science and techniques in the related fields of material physics, design of components and structures, analysis of the constraints

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