• Document: Simulation of Advanced ELC with Synchronous Generator for Micro Hydropower
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Simulation of Advanced ELC with Synchronous Generator for Micro Hydro- power Station ANKITA GUPTA1 Alternate Hydro Energy Centre Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India Email: ankita.iitr.6@gmail.com Abstract- This paper presents an analysis and design of an Synchronous generators can run isolated from the grid Electronic Load Controller (ELC) for standalone synchronous and produce power since excitation is not grid-dependent. generator suitable for micro hydropower stations. ELC is Also, synchronous generators are readily available in basically used to maintain the constant power at the generator market, no excitation capacitors are required to provide terminals, which in turn helps to maintain the system frequency reactive power, highly efficient, having in-built AVR for constant. The designed ELC consists of a controlled bridge voltage regulation and using synchronous generator with rectifier-chopper system feeding a resistive dump load whose power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the ELC we can achieve good frequency regulation. chopper. Proper design of rectifier, chopper and dump load is Literature has revealed that lots of work is done on very important for trouble free operation of ELC. The ELC is ELC with asynchronous generator [2-7]. This paper designed and simulated in MATLAB using Simulink. This therefore deals with the unexplored and relevant topic of scheme can be efficiently used in micro hydropower stations. Development of ELC for micro hydropower station using Synchronous generator of 50kW. The designed system Index Terms - Electronic Load Controller; Synchronous consists of hydro turbine, exciter, synchronous generator, Generator; Micro Hydropower Station. consumer load and ELC. In this case it is 50kW generator driven by a hydro turbine. The voltage output of the I. INTRODUCTION generator is regulated by AVR. The ELC is controlled Micro hydropower stations are emerging as a major rectifier type with chopper controlled dump load. Here renewable energy resource today as they do not encounter IGBT is used as chopper. The system is designed in the problems of population displacement and environmental MATLAB Simulink and the results are analyzed. problems associated with the large hydropower plants. They have been playing a great role to provide electricity to II. DEVELOPED SCHEME remote area especially in developing countries. Micro A schematic diagram of the developed ELC system hydropower stations are defined as hydro electric system with synchronous generator is shown in “Fig. 1”. The upto 100 kW power range. system consists of 3-phase synchronous generator of 50kW Almost all of the micro hydropower stations are based driven by a constant hydro turbine. Since the input to the on run-off-river type. The operating point of the generator is hydro turbine (i.e. Head and discharge) is assumed to be fixed such that it gives constant rated output at the rated constant, so the output of hydro turbine is nearly constant, conditions of voltage, current and speed, but the consumer output power of the Synchronous generator must be held load may vary. When the consumer load on the generator constant at all loads. Any decrease in load may accelerate decreases, the turbine begins to accelerate and increases the machine and raise the frequency levels to high value. generated frequency. Similarly, an increase in consumer The power in surplus of the consumer load is dumped in the load on the generator causes deceleration in the turbine resistive dump load through an ELC connected at the speed and the frequency decreases [1]. Now the variation in terminals of the synchronous generator. the consumer load connected is neutralized by the controller The ELC consists of a controlled bridge rectifier in diverting the extra power to a dump load. ELC regulates the series with IGBT chopper and dump load (resistors). The voltage and frequency of the generator through monitoring duty cycle of the chopper is adjusted so that the output of consumer load variation and automatically dissipating power of the generator remains constant.

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