• Document: Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab #7 Muscle Tissue and Skeletal Muscles
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Anatomy & Physiology 120 Lab #7 Muscle Tissue and Skeletal Muscles What you Need to Know • Look briefly at the Structure of: 1) Skeletal, 2) Smooth & 3) Cardiac Muscle • Naming, Identification, Functions You are only responsible for the identification of ALL muscles which are on your Lab Packet In general: Generates force to move your bones Propel body fluids & ingested food Generate and distribute heat Skeletal Muscle Structure Skeletal Muscle is an organ of the muscular system How they move: utilizing the counter effects of a flexor & an extensor Antagonistic Agonist – prime mover Antagonist - opposes the prime mover Structure of Skeletal Muscle • Connective Tissue coverings – Epimysium = CT Surrounds muscle – Perimysium = CT Separates fascicles – Endomysium = CT Separates muscle fibers • Skeletal Muscle Fibers – Fiber = single muscle cell • Thin • Elongated • Cylindrical • Multinucleate CT – Connective Tissue To Do: - Some Help – – Origin – place where the muscle attaches (usually does not move – Insertion – Place where the muscle attaches (the end that moves (ex Biceps) – Prime mover (agonist) / Synergist (helper) / Antagonist Very good website http://faculty.ucc.edu/biology-potter/Musculature Muscles of the Face / Head / Neck • Facial Expression and mastication (chewing) – Frontalis – Raises Eyebrows – Orbicularis oculi – Closes Eyes (oculi = eye) – Orbicularis oris – Closes lips (oris = mouth) (Orbic = Round muscle) – Platysma – pull lower lip back & down – Buccinator – sucks in cheeks – Masseter – closes jaw (chewing) – Temporalis – closes jaw • Muscles That move the Head – Sternocleidomastoid – Rotates head to opposite shoulder • Muscles that move the Shoulder – Trapezius – Elevates & Retracts Scapula – Serratus anterior – Draws Scapula Forward – Pectoralis minor – Scapula Forward & Downward • Muscles that move the Upper Arm – Pectoralis major – Flexes & adducts arm – Latissimus dorsi – Extends & adducts arm – Deltoid – Abducts arm Trapezius Deltoid Pectoralis Major Latissimus dorsi posterior anterior Location: Found beneath and posterior (to the pectoral muscle Location: Flat / thin muscle – under the Pectoralis major on the Lateral rib cage Action: Draws Scapula Forward Action: Scapula Forward & Downward • Muscles of the Lower Arm (Forearm) – Biceps brachii – Flexes – Brachialis – Flexes (synergist) – Triceps brachii – Extends • Know the general surface location of – Flexors & Extensors of the Hand – Flexor: Anterior forearm (Palm side – anatomical position) ex: You flex to lift a dumbell – Extensors: Posterior forearm (they pull the arm back once the flexors have done their job) Triceps brachii Extends the forearm (Antagonist to the Biceps brachii) Brachialis - Synergist (helper) Flexes the Forearm Extensors Flexors Anterior portion of the forearm Posterior portion of the forearm • Muscles that move the abdominal wall – External oblique – Compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation & lateral flexion – Internal oblique – Compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation & lateral flexion – Transversus abdominis – Compresses abdomen – Rectus abdominis – Flexes the vertebral column • Muscles the move the chest wall – External intercostals – Elevates rib cage (inspiration) – Internal intercostals – Depresses rib cage (forced exhalation) – Diaphragm - Inspiration Action: Depresses rib cage (Forced exhalation) Location: Superficial & Lateral (Fibers run Medially) Action: Lateral flexion & Trunk rotation & Compresses abdominal wall Location: Deepest muscle Location: Medial superficial of the Abdominal wall abdominal muscle Action: Flexes the vertebral Action: Compresses column (Bow or a sit up) & abdomen Forced expiration External Intercostal – Between the ribs (Fibers run downward Pull the ribs toge

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