• Document: Review Article CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SESAME OIL CAKE REVIEW
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International Journal of Science, Environment ISSN 2278-3687 (O) and Technology, Vol. 3, No 3, 2014, 827 – 835 Review Article CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SESAME OIL CAKE – REVIEW R. Yasothai Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Erode – 638 004, Tamil Nadu, India E-mail: yasothairamalingam@gmail.com Abstract: Scientists are on the lookout for an alternate source of cheaper oil cake with low level of aflatoxin. One such alternate is the sesame oil cake which contains on an average 32% crude protein (CP), 8-10% oil and total oil and albuminoids of 40-42% and costing lower than soyabean meal and groundnut oil cake. It has been reported to be rich in essential amino acids namely methionine and cystine (Johri et al., 1988). 1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 1.1.1 Proximate Principles, Calcium and Phosphorus Contents 1.1.1.1 Sesame seed The proximate composition, calcium and phosphorus contents of white and black varieties of whole and dehulled sesame seed and hulls are presented in Table 1. The crude protein content in dehulled seed varied between 21.10 to 21.50% which was marginally higher than whole seeds. There was a definite relative increase in the crude fat content in dehulled seeds (53.5 – 54.1%) compared to whole seeds (49.8 – 50.2%). But the crude fibre content was very low in dehulled seeds (1.3 – 1.4%) compared to whole seeds (3.2 – 3.3%). Similarly, the mineral matter in dehulled seed (2.3 – 2.6%) was comparatively lower than whole seed (4.8 – 5.2%), which was confirmed by a low calcium content in dehulled seeds (0.06 – 0.19%) compared to whole seeds, however there was no much changes in the phosphorus content of dehulled and whole seed. Received Apr 15, 2014 * Published June 2, 2014 * www.ijset.net 828 R. Yasothai Table 1: Percent proximate composition, calcium and phosphorus content of sesame seeds and hulls White variety Black variety Constituent Whole Dehulled Hull Whole Dehulled Hull seed seed seed seed Moisture 5.40 6.20 4.20 5.20 6.10 4.10 Fat 50.20 54.10 10.20 49.80 53.50 9.90 Protein 19.80 21.10 8.00 20.00 21.50 8.10 Crude fibre 3.20 1.40 18.50 3.30 1.30 19.50 Carbohydrates 14.90 14.70 22.00 14.70 14.90 15.90 Mineral matter 4.80 2.30 22.80 5.20 2.60 24.20 Calcium 1.06 0.19 9.75 1.21 0.06 12.10 Phosphorus 0.47 0.48 0.51 0.62 0.62 0.66 (Mehta, 2000) 1.1.1.2 Sesame oil cake Proximate composition, calcium and phosphorus contents of sesame oil cakes are presented in Table 2. The crude protein content in ghani cake ranged from 35 to 39.10% which was lower when compared to solvent extraction cake (41 – 45%) and expeller cake (39.10 – 47.10%). Similarly, the crude fibre content in ghani cake ranged from 2.4 to 4.2%, which was also lower when compared to solvent extracted cake (7 – 7.2%) and expeller cake (4.7 – 9.97%). The ether extract value was lower in solvent extracted cake when compared to ghani cake (5.1 – 9.2%) and expeller cake (6.99 – 9.30%). But there was no much difference in the calcium and phosphorus contents of the three types of oil cakes. 1.1.2 Amino Acid Composition 1.1.2.1 Sesame seed The amino acid composition (g/16 g N) of sesame seed is presented in Table 3. In general the amino acid composition of whole and dehulled seed except arginine (12.5 vs 9.5) and phenylalanine (4.35 vs 6.2) were almost similar. The lysine content in whole seed ranged from 2.5 to 3.0 while the methionine level was between 2.5 to 4.0. Chemical Composition of Sesame Oil Cake – Review 829 1.1.2.2 Sesame oil cake The amino acid composition (g/16 g N) of ghani, expeller and solvent extracted sesame oil cake are presented in Table 4. An overall picture reveals that the amino acid content of ghani cake was comparatively higher than expeller or solvent extracted cakes. The lysine content in ghani cake was higher (2.90) when compared to the expeller (1.14 – 2.20) and solvent extracted cake (1.10). Similarly the methionine content in ghani cake (3.10) was higher than expeller cake (1.23 – 3.0) and solvent extracted cake (1.27). 1.1.3 Fatty Acid Composition of Sesame Oil The per cent fatty acids composition of s

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