• Document: TRADITIONAL MALAYSIAN BUILT rorms: A STUDY or THE ORIGINS, MAIN BUILDING TYPES, DEVELOPMENT or BUILDING rorms, DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND THE APPLICATION or TRADITIONAL CONCEPTS IN MODERN BUILD...
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TRADITIONAL MALAYSIAN BUILT roRMS: A STUDY or THE ORIGINS, MAIN BUILDING TYPES, DEVELOPMENT or BUILDING roRMS, DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND THE APPLICATION or TRADITIONAL CONCEPTS IN MODERN BUILDINGS VOLUME II Esmawee Haji Endut Chapter Four MALAYSJ:AN COLONJ:AL AJlCBJ:TECTURE 4.1 HISTORY AND ORIGINS Colonial architecture in Malaysia came into existence when three major imperial regimes - the Portuguese, Dutch and British - came to rule Malaya from 1511 to 1957. These European powers left behind a wide range of buildtng forms and styles which demonstrate their influence in Malaya. Remnants of Portuguese and Dutch architecture can be seen in Malacca and British architecture is largely spread around the major cities on the west coast of the Malay peninsula. The Portuguese occupied Malacca for one hundred and thirty years (1511-1641) and during their occupation they constructed various buildings including palaces, hospitals, a hall for the Portuguese Council of State, churches and large houses l . Surrounding Malacca town they built an eight-foot thick stone wall called the A Farmosa or 'The Famous' (see Fig. 4.1). Most of the Portuguese buildings were obliterated in the Dutch siege of Malacca in 1641. The 1 Most of these recorded buildings were built within the 'A Farmosa' fortification. s. Vlatseas notes that Manuel Godinho de Eredia, "Cosmographer Major" of Malacca and a punctilious recorder of his time, gives a complete list of buildings inside the Fort in one of his writings in 1618. These were: The Castle and the Palace of the Governor, the Bishop's Palace, the Hall of the Council and of the Brotherhood of Mercy, the Churches of Our Lady of the Assumption, Our Lady of the Visitation and Mercy, Our Lady of the Annunciation, the Church of St. Dominic, the Convent of the Dominicans, the Church of St. Anthony, the Convent of the Augustines and two hospitals. See VLATSEAS, S., A History of Malaysian Architecture, Singapore; Longman, 1990, page 30. 247 al,~IIIU ..... ~ _•••• IIUKIT~··. ""'1, PIATU :- "" ",."",..,"" '" 0 .:!! ...<: . <: ~. ~ '- < tr ~ ""., u <5 '" ::> 0 ~ < tr 1- MAP OF CITY A T~ F~t,.,SI. ~ F~moso: AND SUBURBS OF II Tilt Cothtdral of Ouriad!l of t.k Assumptlon . )I Se: C Tilt Town /loll. o T~ 'Mlserlcorrll~: MALACCA E T~ Pauper Hospltol. f T~ Rayol Hasplto/. G T~ Church of Our Ladf of t.I1t Ann!J/Iciotilltl Based on Maps and ond IN JtSUlt (c"e~t of St Paul. H Tilt BIshops Polact. Texts of Eredia 1613 I T~ Church of St An:.hon!l ond til. CO.' VMt of St Augustine (J.M.B.R.A.S.·VoI.XiI L Tilt Church and ConYtnt of St Oc:,,,nt<. Part Ii: Aug. 1.,934 P.1.) M Tilt Prison . H T~ Btll Tower Figure 4.1: Malacca and suburbs as it existed under the Portuguese in 1613. 2 2 Map reproduced from MOORHEAD, F. J., A History of Malaya and Its ~~~~~~~~~~~ Neighbours, London; Longman, Green and Coy, 1957, page 181. 248 'Porta di-Santiago' is the only remaining vestige of the A- Farmosa fortification (Fig. 4.2). Figure 4.2: 'Porta

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