• Document: Chapter 24: World War Looms
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Chapter 24: World War Looms Germany invades neighboring countries and launches the Holocaust—the systematic killing of millions of Jews and other “non-Aryans.” The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor ushers the U.S. into World War II. 24.1: Dictators Threaten World Peace 24.2: War in Europe 24.3: The Holocaust 24.4: America Moves Toward War 24.1: Dictators Threaten World Peace Europe and Asia witness the rise of rulers with total power. Their aggressive actions contribute to World War II. I. Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia A. For many of the world’s countries, Post WWI era marked by economic and political devastation—this breeds dangerous ideas B. Failures of the World War I Peace Settlement 1. Treaty of Versailles causes anger, resentment throughout a. Germany resents blame for war, loss of colonies, border territories b. Russia resents loss of lands used to create other nations 2. New democracies flounder under social, economic problems 3. Dictators rise; driven by nationalism, desire for more territory C. Stalin transforms the Soviet Union 1. 1922 V. I. Lenin establishes Soviet Union after civil war 2. 1924 Joseph Stalin takes over: a. replaces private farms with collectives b. creates second largest industrial power; famines kill millions c. purges anyone who threatens his power; 8–13 million killed 3. Totalitarian government exerts almost complete control over people D. The Rise of Fascism in Italy 1. Unemployment, inflation lead to bitter strikes, some communist-led a. Middle, upper classes want stronger leaders 2. Fascism stresses nationalism, needs of state above individual 3. Benito Mussolini plays on fears of economic collapse, communism a. Supported by government officials, police, army b. 1922 appointed head of government, establishes totalitarian state E. The Nazis Take Over Germany 1. Adolf Hitler leader of National Socialist German Workers’ Party a. Mein Kampf—basic beliefs of Nazism, based on extreme nationalism b. Wants to unite German-speaking people, enforce racial “purification” 2. 1932, 6 million unemployed; many men join Hitler’s private army a. Nazis become strongest political party; Hitler named chancellor b. Dismantles democratic Weimar Republic; establishes Third Reich F. Militarists Gain Control in Japan 1. 1931, Nationalist military leaders seize Manchuria a. League of Nations condemns action; Japan quits League 2. Militarists take control of Japanese government G. Aggression in Europe and Africa 1. 1933, Hitler quits League; 1935, begins military buildup a. sends troops into Rhineland, League does nothing to stop him 2. 1935, League fails to stop Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia H. Civil War Breaks Out in Spain 1. 1936, General Francisco Franco rebels against Spanish republic--Spanish Civil War begins 2. Hitler, Mussolini back Franco; Stalin aids opposition a. Western democracies remain neutral 3. War leads to Rome-Berlin Axis—alliance between Italy and Germany 4. 1939, Franco wins war, becomes fascist dictator II. The United States Responds Cautiously A. Many concerned about growing threats, but Americans feel more endangered by economic depression within the U.S. B. Americans Cling to Isolationism 1. Public is outraged at profits of banks, arms dealers during WW I 2. Americans become isolationists; FDR backs away from foreign policy a. 1935 Neutrality Acts try to keep U.S. out of future wars i. outlaws arms sales, loans to nations at war C. Neutrality Breaks Down 1. 1937 Japan launches new attack on China; FDR sends aid to China 2. FDR wants to isolate aggressor nations to stop war 24.2: War in Europe Using the sudden mass attack called blitzkrieg; Germany invades and quickly conquers many European countries. I. Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall A. Hitler seeks to follow through on creating a larger Germanic state in Central Europe, even if it meant risking world war B. Union with Austria 1. Post WW I division of Austria-Hungary creates fairly small Austria a. Majority of Austrians are German, favor unification with Germany

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