• Document: Membrane designs for Reverse Electrodialysis. David Vermaas Kitty Nijmeijer Membrane Science & Technology
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Membrane designs for Reverse Electrodialysis David Vermaas Kitty Nijmeijer Membrane Science & Technology 2 Membrane Science & Technology Group 3 Energy  desalination Thermodynamic minimum: 2.5 MJ/m3 fresh water 4 Salinity Gradient Energy transport Salinity Gradient Energy evaporation precipitation river discharge Sea River 5 Energy Potential Waddenzee salt water IJsselmeer 200m fresh water Hydro electric power station 6 Energy Potential Waddenzee salt water IJsselmeer 200m fresh water Hydro electric power station 50 elephants on 1 m2 7 Energy Potential Waddenzee salt water IJsselmeer 200m fresh water Hydro electric power station 8 Energy Potential Theoretical potentials: • Sacramento river: 1400 MW • Mississippi river: 36 GW • Worldwide: > 2 TW (≈ worldwide electricity consumption) Challenge: increase in power output • Objective: - 5 kW/m3 reactor volume - 5 W/m2 membrane area 9 Principle of RED Sea water ee-- Cl- Cl- Cl- e- Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Anode Cathode CEM AEM CEM AEM CEM AEM CEM River water 10 Opportunities for improvement • Membrane development • Spacer / compartment solutions • Lessons from and for other applications 11 Membrane properties and membrane design 12 Ion exchange membranes for RED Cation exchange membrane (CEM) Source: ionics SO3 Anion exchange membrane (AEM) N(CH3)3 13 Membrane properties Dlugolecki et al., Journal of Membrane Science 319 (2008) 214. 14 Membrane design G. M. Geise, M. A. Hickner and B. E. Logan, ACS Appl. Mater. Interf., 2013, 5, 10294. 15 Membrane design CH 2CHO CH 2CHO y n-y CH 2 CH 2Cl + Cl- 2 CH 2CHO + y Charged n + Cl- polymer CH 2Cl Polymer Crosslinker CH 2 PECH DABCO CH 2CHO CH 2CHO y n-y Source: Ionics CH 2Cl P. Altmeier, Patent 5,746,917 (1998); Bolto and Jackson, Reactive polymers 2 (1984) 209-222.

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